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Wednesday, May 9, 2012

7th Grade Study Guide

Materials to study:
  • The power point slides that I posted on the blog for you (mitosis, meiosis, mendelian genetics, and advanced genetics)
  • Your notes that you took while I was giving the lectures that correspond to the above mentioned power-point slides
  • The workbook, pages 77-100
  • The videos posted on the blog, watch them again! They have a lot of great information. 
  • The cell division coloring packet and the DNA coloring packet
  • Any homework, classwork, or quizzes that I have handed back to you. 
  • quizzes on cell division and genetics
  • Why is mitosis important to single celled eukaryotic cells?
  • Why is mitosis important to multi-celled organisms?
  • What is interphase? It is part of the cell cycle, but not part of mitosis. What happens during interphase. 
  • List the stages of mitosis and what happens in each. Draw a picture of an animal cell in each of the stages. 
  • Mitosis is the division of the cell's nucleus. How does the cytoplasm divide?
  • How many cells with how many chromosomes are produced at the end of mitosis?
  • How many chromosomes do human body cells have?
  • Can bacteria undergo mitosis? Why or why not? 
  • Why is sexual reproduction important to diversity, survival of species, and evolution?
  • Where does meiosis happen in animals? In plants?
  • Describe the stages of meiosis I and meiosis II. Which stage are the really important differences in? How many cells with how many chromosomes does meiosis I make? How many cells with how many chromosomes does meiosis II make?
  • Why is it important for sex cells to have half as many chromosomes as body cells?
  • What is the production of eggs called? How many eggs are made? What is the production of sperm called? How many sperm are made?
  • What is independent assortment?
  • What is crossing over?
  • Who was Gregor Mendel? Why is he so famous? What did he do that others before him did not?
  • What is meant by mendelian genetics? The study of traits coded for by one gene that exists as only 2 alleles with one dominant and one recessive. This is "simple" genetics.
  • Punnett Squares! Practice. Be sure to be able to set up a cross and then determine the probably of an offspring having a certain genotype or phenotype. 
  • Advanced genetics: Polygenetic inheritance. What type of traits are coded for by many genes? Things that you see a range in; hair color, skin color, eye color, height. 
  • If given a data set, plot the data in a histogram and determine if the trait is likely to be controlled by more than 1 trait.
  • Box plots.
  • incomplete dominance, remember the flowers and the cows.
  • Multiple alleles- Blood Type, A, B, and O. Can have genotype AO, AB, AA, BB, BO, OO and phenotype, A, B, O, or AB (A and B are codominant, O is recessive)
  • DNA, what does it stand for? What is it made out of? Twisted ladder, the sides of the ladder are __________________ and the rungs of the ladder are ____________________________
  • Where does DNA stay?
  • What is RNA, what does it stand for? How is it different from DNA?
  • What are the 3 types of RNA and what do they do?
  • What are Amino Acids? the building blocks of proteins
  • Practice coding from DNA to mRNA to tRNA to AA
  • How are the different types of cells in our body different if they all have the same DNA?
  • What can happen if the DNA in a body cell is damaged? Can this be passed on to babies?
  • What happens if DNA in a sex cell is damaged?